Impact Assessments

Macro-economic Impacts of Climate Change

Long and Medium Term Impact Assessments

ToPDAd uses two macro-economic models, one covering a medium to long-term period from the present up till 2050 (GINFORS), and a second one covering a longer period, from now up till 2090 (GRACE). The first model provides insight in the economic potential of different de-carbonising strategies, whereas the second one analyses the effects of different adaptation strategies while being confronted with climate change impacts.

GINFORS analyses in detail the economic impact of the transformation to a low-carbon society in the next coming decades. In this period, the effects of climate change still remain weak, even under the strongest climate scenarios. The model includes environmental stressors and information on the sector-specific low-carbon technologies.

The effects of climate change and the need for adaptation will mostly be felt in the second half of the 21st century. This period is covered by the GRACE model, which also includes information on the impacts of climate change, but is less detailed in the description of economies.

Together, the two models address this century's main challenges: how to combine adaptation and transformation towards a low-carbon economy in the coming decades, and adaptation to climate change in the second half of this century.

ToPDAd Impact Assessment Summaries


Browse and click on the slides below to access the summary of a ToPDAd impact assessment